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Mundari language, also called Mundic, was the language spoken by the ancient Mundari up until the early First Era. It is traditionally believed to have been distantly related to the original language of the elves (pre-Aldmeri), but ancestral to Giantish. The archaeologist and historian Melik of Sentinel claims that if Mundari is related to the language of the prehistoric elves, it must be an independent branch of Merish with no close ties to any elven language, living or dead.

Phonology Edit

The phonetic notation of speech sounds (bracketed letters) in this article follows the real-world IPA format. The bolded letters that are not bracketed represent how Mundari words are transcribed using a modified Latin orthography.

Vowels Edit

Mundari has five vowel qualities and ten length contrasts.

Table of vowel phonemes of Mundari
Short Long
Front Central Back Front Central Back
Close i [i] u [u ~ ʊ] ī [iː] ū [uː]
Mid e [ɛ] o [o ~ ɔ] ē [ɛː ~ e] ō [oː]
Open a [a ~ ə] ā [aː]

Consonants Edit

Mundari has 30 consonant phonemes.

Table of consonant phonemes of Mundari
Labial Lamino-
dental
Dental Apico-
alveolar
Palatal or
postalveolar
Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m [m] n [n] ğ [ŋ]
Plosive Voiceless p [p] t [t] c [c] k [k] q [q] [ʔ]
Voiced b [b] d [d] j [ɟ] g [ɡ]
Affricate Voiceless ś [ts̺] ç [tʃ]
Voiced ş [tz]
Fricative Voiceless f [f] [θ] s [s̺] š [ʃ] [x ~ ħ] h [h]
Voiced v [v] [ð] z [z] y [ʝ] [ɣ]
Lateral l [l]
Rhotic Trill r-, -rr-, -r [r]
Tap -r- [ɾ]

Notes on allophones Edit

  • [f] is in some cases an allophone of [v]; [v] can also be an allophone of [b]. The phoneme for f is usually a voiceless labialized velar approximant [ʍ] at the beginning of words and after the velar plosive consonants [k] and [g].
  • [g] and [k] are allophones in most cases; [g] is also an allophone of [ʝ]. These may amalgmate into one phoneme, [c].
  • [ʝ] may occasionally shift to [ʃ].
  • [x] may also shift to a voiced velar fricative, [ɣ].
  • [l] is an allophone of [r], [t], [d], and [n].

Grammar Edit

Mundari was an ergative–absolutive language with a polysynthetic morphological typology and an SOV syntax. Case markers in Mundari language usually come at the end of a subject and an object, as do singular and plural articles. Though there is a lack of gender distinction in personal and interrogative pronouns, distinction of animacy and inanimacy is made between pronouns and nouns respectively.

Note: Pronouns are often dropped when context makes them unnecessary.

Consider this phrase:

Hurikavārsutīgyaguod.
Hur-ERG avārsutīg-ALL guo-PAST
(S)he-ERG Ivarstead-ALL go-PAST
"(S)he went to Ivarstead."

The preffix Hur- is the personal pronoun describing the transitive subject of the phrase, so the ergative suffix -ik is added. Avārsutīg is the Mundari name for Ivarstead, and the suffix -ya is added for the allative (locative) case. Finally, guo- literally means "to go" and the suffix -d is added to demonstrate the past tense. Therefore, guod would be the equivalent of the English "went".

Basic word-list Edit

Below is a list of about 210+ basic words in both English and Mundari. This list may grow to become more exhaustive of other common words, but will be for now limited to 210 core vocabulary.

English-Mundari Basic Wordlist
English Mundari
above (prep.) kevān
all kujōn
and ’id
ash ’arraš
at ’an
back (spine) vezḥala
bad (evil) garuç
belly sebir
below beḥe
big ḥanṯ
bird çor
black biruš
blood ’urul
bone ḥezor
branch (of a tree; arm) ’atar
breast putal
child hom
cloud ’uḏe
cold ’uş
correct; true yōḏiğ; ’iḥva
day ’aiqoğ
dirty śigīm
dog šeḥun
dry dre’ūl
dull; blunt
dust
ear
earth; soil
egg
Eight
eye
far
fat; grease
father
feather
Fifty
fire
fish
Five
flower
fog
Four
fruit
good
grass
green
hair
hand
he
head
heavy
house
how?
husband
I
if
in; inside
intestines
lake
leaf
left
leg; foot
lightning
liver
long
louse
man/male
meat/flesh
moon
mosquito
mother
mouth
name
narrow
near
neck
needle
new
night
Nine
no; not
nose
old
One
One hundred
One thousand
other
painful; sick
person; human being
rain
rat
red
right
road; path
root
rope
rotten
salt
sand
sea
Seven
sharp
short
shoulder
shy; ashamed
Six
skin
sky
small
smoke
snake
spider
star
stick; wood
stone
tail
Ten
that
thatch; roof
they
thick
thin
this
thou
Three
thunder
to bite
to blow
to breathe
to burn
to buy
to chew
to choose
to climb
to come
to cook
to count
to cry
to cut; hack
to die; be dead
to dig
to dream
to drink
to eat
to fall
to fear
to flow
to fly
to grow
to hear
to hide
to hit
to hold
to hunt
to kill
to know, be knowledgeable
to laugh
to lie down
to live, be alive
to open, uncover
to plant
to pound, beat
to say
to scratch
to see
to sew
to shoot
to sit
to sleep
to sniff, smell
to spit
to split
to squeeze
to stab, pierce
to stand
to steal
to suck
to swell
to swim
to think
to throw
to tie up, fasten
to turn
to vomit
to walk
to work
to yawn
tongue
tooth
Twenty
Two
warm
water
we
wet
what?
when?
where?
white
who
wide
wife
wind
wing
woman/female
woods/forest
worm (earthworm)
year
yellow
you

Trivia Edit

  • The Mundari lexicon and phonology are based primarily on the lexicons and phonologies of the real-world Basque languages of northern Spain and southern France.
  • Mundari grammar is based on that of real-world Australian Aboriginal languages, as well as Basque. Basque tends to be of SOV syntax, as do most Australian languages. Mundari carries a strictly established SOV syntax, and like Basque and Australian languages, tends to be polysynthetic.
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